Overview of the hottest aerosol fire extinguishing

2022-08-20
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Overview of aerosol fire extinguishing technology

the medium of aerosol is gas, and aerosol is a sol state formed by fine solid particles, or fine liquid particles and inert gases suspended and dispersed in gas medium. Aerosol fire extinguishing technology has developed rapidly in recent years with stable quality. Researchers at home and abroad have conducted a lot of effective research and development on various aerosols and their application technologies, and achieved some results

aerosols can be divided into "high temperature technical aerosols" (usually referred to as "hot aerosols") and "non high temperature technical aerosols" (usually referred to as "cold aerosols"). The hot aerosol fire extinguishing technology is to use the solid fuel mixture to produce suspended solid particles and inert gases of sufficient concentration through its own combustion reaction, release them into the fire space, inhibit the flame combustion, and extinguish the flame. Smoke extinguishing technology belongs to the category of hot aerosol technology. The cold aerosol fire extinguishing technology makes the ultra-fine dry powder in the container spray out through the nozzle through pressure, so that it is suspended in the fire space and the flame is extinguished. In fact, water mist fire extinguishing technology is also a cold aerosol fire extinguishing technology

hot aerosol fire extinguishing agent was first developed by the former Soviet Union. The fire extinguishing agent contains 35% - 50% oxidants that have been fought ideologically, 15% - 40% fuels (nitrogenous organics) that strengthen basic research, about 22% - 35% carbonates of ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium, and 3% idulol. Among them, the oxidants are KClO3, KNO3, nano or NH4NO3, the fuels are dicyandiamide, nitroguanidine and urea, which are independently developed, designed and implemented by Jiangsu Jinheng Information Technology Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of Nanjing Iron and Steel Corporation. A kind of hot aerosol fire extinguishing agent developed in Russia is a mixture of gas and particles produced by the combustion of solid fuel mixture. This solid fuel mixture, called TTK grain, is composed of inorganic oxidants containing potassium (such as chlorate and potassium nitrate) and organic reducing agents (including various resins, plasticizers and hardeners)

the research and development of domestic hot aerosol fire extinguishing technology is relatively early. After absorbing foreign technology and further research and improvement, there are new improvements in technology, such as reducing the outlet temperature of hot aerosol fire extinguishing device from 300 ℃ to 80 ℃ now, and its products have reached the advanced level of similar foreign products

Table 1 shows the performance parameters of aerosol and several main gas fire extinguishing agents

the hot aerosol fire extinguishing device extinguishes the fire through the particles and inert gases generated by the grain in the combustion device. Its fire extinguishing mechanism is mainly the chemical inhibition of combustion in gas phase and solid phase and the dilution of oxygen in the reserve by the generated inert gases. Characteristics of hot aerosol fire extinguishing device:

1. High fire extinguishing efficiency. Because its fire extinguishing mechanism is mainly chemical inhibition, the fire extinguishing concentration is low and the fire extinguishing efficiency is high. Generally, the minimum fire extinguishing concentration of hot aerosol is 70-100g/m3, which is the lower of several fire extinguishing agents in use at present

2. It is less toxic, does not destroy the atmospheric ozone layer, and is conducive to environmental protection

3. Special fire extinguishing devices are used, and pressure vessels are not required (except for smoke extinguishing devices for oil tanks)

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